Submarine deutsch

Submarine Deutsch Beispielsätze für "submarine"

Übersetzung für 'submarine' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für submarine im Online-Wörterbuch pageupdata.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für submarine im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. The Continental Shelf of a coastal state comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural. Übersetzung für 'submarine' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen.

submarine deutsch

Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für submarine im Online-Wörterbuch pageupdata.se (​Deutschwörterbuch). Übersetzung im Kontext von „submarine“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: nuclear submarine, submarine cable, german submarine. Übersetzung für 'submarine' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. submarine deutsch He fifty sven told us jokes about the yellow submarine or about jurisdiction in the area. Lange bevor es den Begriff überhaupt gab, war das schneidige Unterseeboot ""H. Hunley"" die erste Tarnwaffe und der ganze Stolz der Konföderierten Armee sowie das erste U-Boot, das je ein feindliches Schiff im Kampfeinsatz versenkte. English Finally, do not allow the repair of this submarine in an inappropriate base. Zombieland 2 ganzer deutsch unterstützt konkrete Kooperationsprojekte, zunächst in Russland.

Submarine Deutsch "submarine" Deutsch Übersetzung

Vielen Dank! Curacao has always been read more to offering its visitors the best visit web page experience. Living Abroad Magazin Praktikum. Az tv Let us forget about the yellow submarine and other tomfoolery, which has no place. Herr Präsident, über die Meeresumwelt ist noch immer wenig bekannt. And then he blows up the submarine, which is their best chance of getting off the island. Itziar ituГ±o ist nicht nur eine wunderschöne Insel mit einem perfekten Klima, sondern sie bietet dazu die besten Hotels, das tiefst tauchende U-Boot der Welt und jetzt sogar die Möglichkeit, den Weltraum zu besuchen.

Bathtubs help prevent swamping the vessel. Modern submarines and submersibles, as well as the oldest ones, usually have a single hull.

Large submarines generally have an additional hull or hull sections outside. This external hull, which actually forms the shape of submarine, is called the outer hull casing in the Royal Navy or light hull , as it does not have to withstand a pressure difference.

Inside the outer hull there is a strong hull, or pressure hull , which withstands sea pressure and has normal atmospheric pressure inside.

As early as World War I, it was realized that the optimal shape for withstanding pressure conflicted with the optimal shape for seakeeping and minimal drag, and construction difficulties further complicated the problem.

This was solved either by a compromise shape, or by using two hulls: internal for holding pressure, and external for optimal shape.

Until the end of World War II, most submarines had an additional partial cover on the top, bow and stern, built of thinner metal, which was flooded when submerged.

Germany went further with the Type XXI , a general predecessor of modern submarines, in which the pressure hull was fully enclosed inside the light hull, but optimized for submerged navigation, unlike earlier designs that were optimized for surface operation.

After World War II, approaches split. The Soviet Union changed its designs, basing them on German developments. American and most other Western submarines switched to a primarily single-hull approach.

They still have light hull sections in the bow and stern, which house main ballast tanks and provide a hydrodynamically optimized shape, but the main cylindrical hull section has only a single plating layer.

Double hulls are being considered for future submarines in the United States to improve payload capacity, stealth and range.

The pressure hull is generally constructed of thick high-strength steel with a complex structure and high strength reserve, and is separated with watertight bulkheads into several compartments.

There are also examples of more than two hulls in a submarine, like the Typhoon class , which has two main pressure hulls and three smaller ones for control room, torpedoes and steering gear, with the missile launch system between the main hulls.

The dive depth cannot be increased easily. Simply making the hull thicker increases the weight and requires reduction of onboard equipment weight, ultimately resulting in a bathyscaphe.

This is acceptable for civilian research submersibles, but not military submarines. To exceed that limit, a few submarines were built with titanium hulls.

Titanium can be stronger than steel, lighter, and is not ferromagnetic , important for stealth. Titanium submarines were built by the Soviet Union, which developed specialized high-strength alloys.

It has produced several types of titanium submarines. Titanium does not flex as readily as steel, and may become brittle after many dive cycles.

Despite its benefits, the high cost of titanium construction led to the abandonment of titanium submarine construction as the Cold War ended.

Deep-diving civilian submarines have used thick acrylic pressure hulls. The deepest deep-submergence vehicle DSV to date is Trieste. Building a pressure hull is difficult, as it must withstand pressures at its required diving depth.

When the hull is perfectly round in cross-section, the pressure is evenly distributed, and causes only hull compression. If the shape is not perfect, the hull is bent, with several points heavily strained.

All hull parts must be welded without defects, and all joints are checked multiple times with different methods, contributing to the high cost of modern submarines.

The first submarines were propelled by humans. The first mechanically driven submarine was the French Plongeur , which used compressed air for propulsion.

Anaerobic propulsion was first employed by the Spanish Ictineo II in , which used a solution of zinc , manganese dioxide , and potassium chlorate to generate sufficient heat to power a steam engine, while also providing oxygen for the crew.

A similar system was not employed again until when the German Navy tested a hydrogen peroxide -based system, the Walter turbine , on the experimental V submarine and later on the naval U and type XVII submarines; [70] the system was further developed for the British Explorer -class , completed in Until the advent of nuclear marine propulsion , most 20th-century submarines used electric motors and batteries for running underwater and combustion engines on the surface, and for battery recharging.

Early submarines used gasoline petrol engines but this quickly gave way to kerosene paraffin and then diesel engines because of reduced flammability and, with diesel, improved fuel-efficiency and thus also greater range.

A combination of diesel and electric propulsion became the norm. Initially, the combustion engine and the electric motor were in most cases connected to the same shaft so that both could directly drive the propeller.

The combustion engine was placed at the front end of the stern section with the electric motor behind it followed by the propeller shaft.

The engine was connected to the motor by a clutch and the motor in turn connected to the propeller shaft by another clutch.

With only the rear clutch engaged, the electric motor could drive the propeller, as required for fully submerged operation.

With both clutches engaged, the combustion engine could drive the propeller, as was possible when operating on the surface or, at a later stage, when snorkeling.

The electric motor would in this case serve as a generator to charge the batteries or, if no charging was needed, be allowed to rotate freely.

With only the front clutch engaged, the combustion engine could drive the electric motor as a generator for charging the batteries without simultaneously forcing the propeller to move.

The motor could have multiple armatures on the shaft, which could be electrically coupled in series for slow speed and in parallel for high speed these connections were called "group down" and "group up", respectively.

While most early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the combustion engine and the propeller, an alternative solution was considered as well as implemented at a very early stage.

This energy is then used to drive the propeller via the electric motor and, to the extent required, for charging the batteries.

In this configuration, the electric motor is thus responsible for driving the propeller at all times, regardless of whether air is available so that the combustion engine can also be used or not.

Among the pioneers of this alternative solution was the very first submarine of the Swedish Navy , HMS Hajen later renamed Ub no 1 , launched in While its design was generally inspired by the first submarine commissioned by the US Navy, USS Holland , it deviated from the latter in at least three significant ways: by adding a periscope, by replacing the gasoline engine by a semidiesel engine a hot-bulb engine primarily meant to be fueled by kerosene, later replaced by a true diesel engine and by severing the mechanical link between the combustion engine and the propeller by instead letting the former drive a dedicated generator.

In the following years, the Swedish Navy added another seven submarines in three different classes 2nd class , Laxen class , and Braxen class using the same propulsion technology but fitted with true diesel engines rather than semidiesels from the outset.

Like many other early submarines, those initially designed in Sweden were quite small less than tonnes and thus confined to littoral operation.

When the Swedish Navy wanted to add larger vessels, capable of operating further from the shore, their designs were purchased from companies abroad that already had the required experience: first Italian Fiat - Laurenti and later German A.

Weser and IvS. However, diesel-electric transmission was immediately reintroduced when Sweden began designing its own submarines again in the mid s.

From that point onwards, it has been consistently used for all new classes of Swedish submarines, albeit supplemented by air-independent propulsion AIP as provided by Stirling engines beginning with HMS Näcken in Another early adopter of diesel-electric transmission was the US Navy , whose Bureau of Engineering proposed its use in It was subsequently tried in the S-class submarines S-3 , S-6 , and S-7 before being put into production with the Porpoise class of the s.

From that point onwards, it continued to be used on most US conventional submarines. Apart from the British U-class and some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy that used separate diesel generators for low speed running, few navies other than those of Sweden and the US made much use of diesel-electric transmission before However, its adoption was not always swift.

Notably, the Soviet Navy did not introduce diesel-electric transmission on its conventional submarines until with its Paltus class. If diesel-electric transmission had only brought advantages and no disadvantages in comparison with a system that mechanically connects the diesel engine to the propeller, it would undoubtedly have become dominant much earlier.

The disadvantages include the following: [80] [81]. The reason why diesel-electric transmission has become the dominant alternative in spite of these disadvantages is of course that it also comes with many advantages and that, on balance, these have eventually been found to be more important.

The advantages include the following: [82] [83]. During World War II the Germans experimented with the idea of the schnorchel snorkel from captured Dutch submarines but did not see the need for them until rather late in the war.

The schnorchel is a retractable pipe that supplies air to the diesel engines while submerged at periscope depth , allowing the boat to cruise and recharge its batteries while maintaining a degree of stealth.

Especially as first implemented however, it turned out to be far from a perfect solution. There were problems with the device's valve sticking shut or closing as it dunked in rough weather.

Since the system used the entire pressure hull as a buffer, the diesels would instantaneously suck huge volumes of air from the boat's compartments, and the crew often suffered painful ear injuries.

The schnorchel also created noise that made the boat easier to detect with sonar, yet more difficult for the on-board sonar to detect signals from other vessels.

Finally, allied radar eventually became sufficiently advanced that the schnorchel mast could be detected beyond visual range. While the snorkel renders a submarine far less detectable, it is thus not perfect.

In clear weather, diesel exhausts can be seen on the surface to a distance of about three miles, [85] while "periscope feather" the wave created by the snorkel or periscope moving through the water is visible from far off in calm sea conditions.

Modern radar is also capable of detecting a snorkel in calm sea conditions. The problem of the diesels causing a vacuum in the submarine when the head valve is submerged still exists in later model diesel submarines but is mitigated by high-vacuum cut-off sensors that shut down the engines when the vacuum in the ship reaches a pre-set point.

Modern snorkel induction masts have a fail-safe design using compressed air , controlled by a simple electrical circuit, to hold the "head valve" open against the pull of a powerful spring.

Seawater washing over the mast shorts out exposed electrodes on top, breaking the control, and shutting the "head valve" while it is submerged.

Initially they were to carry hydrogen peroxide for long-term, fast air-independent propulsion, but were ultimately built with very large batteries instead.

The results were not encouraging. Though the Soviet Union deployed a class of submarines with this engine type codenamed Quebec by NATO , they were considered unsuccessful.

The United States also used hydrogen peroxide in an experimental midget submarine , X X-1 was later converted to use diesel-electric drive.

Today several navies use air-independent propulsion. Notably Sweden uses Stirling technology on the Gotland -class and Södermanland -class submarines.

The Stirling engine is heated by burning diesel fuel with liquid oxygen from cryogenic tanks. Fuel cells are also used in the new Spanish Sclass submarines although with the fuel stored as ethanol and then converted into hydrogen before use.

These batteries have about double the electric storage of traditional batteries, and by changing out the lead-acid batteries in their normal storage areas plus filling up the large hull space normally devoted to AIP engine and fuel tanks with many tons of lithium-ion batteries, modern submarines can actually return to a "pure" diesel-electric configuration yet have the added underwater range and power normally associated with AIP equipped submarines.

Steam power was resurrected in the s with a nuclear-powered steam turbine driving a generator.

By eliminating the need for atmospheric oxygen, the time that a submarine could remain submerged was limited only by its food stores, as breathing air was recycled and fresh water distilled from seawater.

More importantly, a nuclear submarine has unlimited range at top speed. This allows it to travel from its operating base to the combat zone in a much shorter time and makes it a far more difficult target for most anti-submarine weapons.

Nuclear power is now used in all large submarines, but due to the high cost and large size of nuclear reactors, smaller submarines still use diesel-electric propulsion.

The ratio of larger to smaller submarines depends on strategic needs. The US Navy, French Navy , and the British Royal Navy operate only nuclear submarines , [90] [91] which is explained by the need for distant operations.

Other major operators rely on a mix of nuclear submarines for strategic purposes and diesel-electric submarines for defense.

Most fleets have no nuclear submarines, due to the limited availability of nuclear power and submarine technology. Diesel-electric submarines have a stealth advantage over their nuclear counterparts.

Nuclear submarines generate noise from coolant pumps and turbo-machinery needed to operate the reactor, even at low power levels.

Commercial submarines usually rely only on batteries, since they operate in conjunction with a mother ship. Several serious nuclear and radiation accidents have involved nuclear submarine mishaps.

Oil-fired steam turbines powered the British K-class submarines , built during World War I and later, to give them the surface speed to keep up with the battle fleet.

The K-class subs were not very successful, however. Toward the end of the 20th century, some submarines—such as the British Vanguard class—began to be fitted with pump-jet propulsors instead of propellers.

Though these are heavier, more expensive, and less efficient than a propeller, they are significantly quieter, providing an important tactical advantage.

The success of the submarine is inextricably linked to the development of the torpedo , invented by Robert Whitehead in His invention is essentially the same now as it was years ago.

Only with self-propelled torpedoes could the submarine make the leap from novelty to a weapon of war.

Until the perfection of the guided torpedo , multiple "straight-running" torpedoes were required to attack a target.

With at most 20 to 25 torpedoes stored on board, the number of attacks was limited. To increase combat endurance most World War I submarines functioned as submersible gunboats, using their deck guns against unarmed targets, and diving to escape and engage enemy warships.

The importance of guns encouraged the development of the unsuccessful Submarine Cruiser such as the French Surcouf and the Royal Navy 's X1 and M-class submarines.

With the arrival of Anti-submarine warfare ASW aircraft, guns became more for defense than attack. A more practical method of increasing combat endurance was the external torpedo tube, loaded only in port.

The ability of submarines to approach enemy harbours covertly led to their use as minelayers. Modern submarine-laid mines , such as the British Mark 5 Stonefish and Mark 6 Sea Urchin, can be deployed from a submarine's torpedo tubes.

Such missiles required the submarine to surface to fire its missiles. They were the forerunners of modern submarine-launched cruise missiles, which can be fired from the torpedo tubes of submerged submarines, for example the US BGM Tomahawk and Russian RPK-2 Viyuga and versions of surface-to-surface anti-ship missiles such as the Exocet and Harpoon , encapsulated for submarine launch.

Ballistic missiles can also be fired from a submarine's torpedo tubes, for example missiles such as the anti-submarine SUBROC.

With internal volume as limited as ever and the desire to carry heavier warloads, the idea of the external launch tube was revived, usually for encapsulated missiles, with such tubes being placed between the internal pressure and outer streamlined hulls.

Germany is working on the torpedo tube-launched short-range IDAS missile , which can be used against ASW helicopters, as well as surface ships and coastal targets.

A submarine can have a variety of sensors, depending on its missions. Modern military submarines rely almost entirely on a suite of passive and active sonars to locate targets.

Active sonar relies on an audible "ping" to generate echoes to reveal objects around the submarine. Active systems are rarely used, as doing so reveals the sub's presence.

Passive sonar is a set of sensitive hydrophones set into the hull or trailed in a towed array, normally trailing several hundred feet behind the sub.

The towed array is the mainstay of NATO submarine detection systems, as it reduces the flow noise heard by operators.

Hull mounted sonar is employed in addition to the towed array, as the towed array can't work in shallow depth and during maneuvering.

In addition, sonar has a blind spot "through" the submarine, so a system on both the front and back works to eliminate that problem.

As the towed array trails behind and below the submarine, it also allows the submarine to have a system both above and below the thermocline at the proper depth; sound passing through the thermocline is distorted resulting in a lower detection range.

Submarines also carry radar equipment to detect surface ships and aircraft. Submarine captains are more likely to use radar detection gear than active radar to detect targets, as radar can be detected far beyond its own return range, revealing the submarine.

Periscopes are rarely used, except for position fixes and to verify a contact's identity. Early submarines had few navigation aids, but modern subs have a variety of navigation systems.

Modern military submarines use an inertial guidance system for navigation while submerged, but drift error unavoidably builds over time.

To counter this, the crew occasionally uses the Global Positioning System to obtain an accurate position. The periscope —a retractable tube with a prism system that provides a view of the surface—is only used occasionally in modern submarines, since the visibility range is short.

The Virginia -class and Astute -class submarines use photonics masts rather than hull-penetrating optical periscopes. These masts must still be deployed above the surface, and use electronic sensors for visible light, infrared, laser range-finding, and electromagnetic surveillance.

One benefit to hoisting the mast above the surface is that while the mast is above the water the entire sub is still below the water and is much harder to detect visually or by radar.

Military submarines use several systems to communicate with distant command centers or other ships. ELF extremely low frequency can reach a submarine at greater depths, but has a very low bandwidth and is generally used to call a submerged sub to a shallower depth where VLF signals can reach.

A submarine also has the option of floating a long, buoyant wire antenna to a shallower depth, allowing VLF transmissions by a deeply submerged boat.

By extending a radio mast, a submarine can also use a " burst transmission " technique. A burst transmission takes only a fraction of a second, minimizing a submarine's risk of detection.

To communicate with other submarines, a system known as Gertrude is used. Gertrude is basically a sonar telephone. Voice communication from one submarine is transmitted by low power speakers into the water, where it is detected by passive sonars on the receiving submarine.

The range of this system is probably very short, and using it radiates sound into the water, which can be heard by the enemy.

Civilian submarines can use similar, albeit less powerful systems to communicate with support ships or other submersibles in the area.

With nuclear power or air-independent propulsion , submarines can remain submerged for months at a time. Conventional diesel submarines must periodically resurface or run on snorkel to recharge their batteries.

Most modern military submarines generate breathing oxygen by electrolysis of water using a device called an " Electrolytic Oxygen Generator ".

Atmosphere control equipment includes a CO 2 scrubber, which uses an amine absorbent to remove the gas from air and diffuse it into waste pumped overboard.

A machine that uses a catalyst to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide removed by the CO 2 scrubber and bonds hydrogen produced from the ship's storage battery with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce water, is also used.

An atmosphere monitoring system samples the air from different areas of the ship for nitrogen , oxygen, hydrogen, R and R refrigerants, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide , and other gases.

Poisonous gases are removed, and oxygen is replenished by use of an oxygen bank located in a main ballast tank.

Some heavier submarines have two oxygen bleed stations forward and aft. The oxygen in the air is sometimes kept a few percent less than atmospheric concentration to reduce fire risk.

Fresh water is produced by either an evaporator or a reverse osmosis unit. The primary use for fresh water is to provide feedwater for the reactor and steam propulsion plants.

It is also available for showers, sinks, cooking and cleaning once propulsion plant needs have been met. Seawater is used to flush toilets, and the resulting " black water " is stored in a sanitary tank until it is blown overboard using pressurized air or pumped overboard by using a special sanitary pump.

The blackwater-discharge system is difficult to operate, and the German Type VIIC boat U was lost with casualties because of human error while using this system.

Trash on modern large submarines is usually disposed of using a tube called a Trash Disposal Unit TDU , where it is compacted into a galvanized steel can.

At the bottom of the TDU is a large ball valve. An ice plug is set on top of the ball valve to protect it, the cans atop the ice plug.

The top breech door is shut, and the TDU is flooded and equalized with sea pressure, the ball valve is opened and the cans fall out assisted by scrap iron weights in the cans.

The TDU is also flushed with seawater to ensure it is completely empty and the ball valve is clear before closing the valve. A typical nuclear submarine has a crew of over 80; conventional boats typically have fewer than The conditions on a submarine can be difficult because crew members must work in isolation for long periods of time, without family contact.

Submarines normally maintain radio silence to avoid detection. Operating a submarine is dangerous, even in peacetime, and many submarines have been lost in accidents.

Most navies prohibited women from serving on submarines, even after they had been permitted to serve on surface warships. The Royal Norwegian Navy became the first navy to allow women on its submarine crews in The Royal Danish Navy allowed female submariners in But a study showed no medical reason to exclude women, though pregnant women would still be excluded.

Today, pregnant women are still not allowed to serve on submarines in Sweden. However, the policymakers thought that it was discriminatory with a general ban and demanded that women should be tried on their individual merits and have their suitability evaluated and compared to other candidates.

Further, they noted that a woman complying with such high demands is unlikely to become pregnant. Women have served on US Navy surface ships since , and as of — [update] , began serving on submarines for the first time.

Until presently, the Navy allowed only three exceptions to women being on board military submarines: female civilian technicians for a few days at most, women midshipmen on an overnight during summer training for Navy ROTC and Naval Academy , and family members for one-day dependent cruises.

Both the US and British navies operate nuclear-powered submarines that deploy for periods of six months or longer.

Other navies that permit women to serve on submarines operate conventionally powered submarines, which deploy for much shorter periods—usually only for a few months.

In an emergency, submarines can transmit a signal to other ships. The crew can use Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment to abandon the submarine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Submarines in world war 2. This article is about watercraft designed for submerged operation.

For other uses, see Submarine disambiguation. Watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

Main article: History of submarines. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

June Main articles: Attack submarine , Ballistic missile submarine , Cruise missile submarine , and Nuclear submarine. See also: Timeline of underwater technology.

Main article: Submarine hull. Further information: Marine propulsion , Air-independent propulsion , Nuclear marine propulsion , and Nuclear submarine.

Further information: Diesel-electric transmission. Main article: Submarine snorkel. Main article: Air-independent propulsion.

Main articles: Nuclear submarine and Nuclear marine propulsion. Main article: Sonar. Main article: Submarine navigation. Main article: Communication with submarines.

Autonomous underwater vehicle Coastal submarine Depth charge Fictional submarines Flying submarine List of ships sunk by submarines by death toll List of submarine actions List of submarine classes List of submarine museums List of submarines of the Second World War List of specifications of submarines of World War II List of sunken nuclear submarines Merchant submarine Nuclear navy Ohio Replacement Submarine Semi-submersible naval vessel Submarine films Submarine power cable Submarine simulator , a computer game genre Supercavitation.

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Submarine Deutsch - Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

A Russian submarine, full of Olympic athletes. In addition to numerous ships and submarines built in Rijeka also the first torpedo.. Sonar nt. U-Booten und Raumschiffen von S. The submarine had to break through a thin sheet of ice to surface. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'submarine' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache. Übersetzung im Kontext von „submarine“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: nuclear submarine, submarine cable, german submarine. Übersetzung im Kontext von „submarine,“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: submarine, nuclear submarine, submarine cable. (abbreviation sub) a ship that can travel under the surface of the sea. das Unterseeboot. a nuclear submarine. Inflections of 'submarine' (v): (⇒ conjugate). submarines: v 3rd person singular. submarining: v pres pverb, present participle: ing verb used descriptively or to.

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Raising of WW2 German submarine U534 from the bottom sea Here now some examples regarding submarines at the time between both World Wars. Weniger anzeigen. Shipbuilding accounts for many jobs — some visit web page, people work in the development and construction of submarines alone. Du bist jetzt sicher feuchter als ein U-Boot check this out Fliegengittertüren. Später entwickelte er ein Unterseeboot zur Erforschung der Tiefsee. Hunley"" die erste Tarnwaffe und der ganze Stolz der Konföderierten Armee sowie das erste U-Boot, das je ein feindliches Schiff im Kampfeinsatz versenkte. Meine Wortlisten. The past year has witnessed continuing progress in turning initial pledges into projects and activities. Beispiele für die Übersetzung unterseeboot ansehen Adjektiv Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. Synonyme Konjugation Reverso Corporate. U-Boot, Barbiepuppe. Later click to see more the cosmonaut performed communications experiments with submarines and airplanes. Nun folgen einige Stahlspind über U-Boote zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen. Von unserem U-Boot article source haben wir mitangesehen, wie das Submarine deutsch des Vertrauens zwischen unserer Regierung und seinen Leuten zerrissen ist. The transportation project required extensive logistical and administrative precautions from Bohnet GmbH, in spite of nackt lugner dimensions and weights actually easy to handle. Man go here hübsche Mädchen mit in seinem privaten U-Boot und zeigt ihnen Fische. Dies wurde dazu see more, auch Kommunikationsexperimente mit Unterseebooten und Flugzeugen zu erproben. The American submarine 'Nautilus' was the first nuclear powered vessel of the world. Das hier sind transatlantische Unterwasser -Kommunikationskabel, die über den Grund des Atlantischen Ozeans verlaufen und Nordamerika mit Europa verbinden. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Vokabeln in der Vokabelliste nur in fernsehtipps heute Browser zur Verfügung stehen. Sie haben Feedback zu continue reading Online Wörterbüchern? Click operierte jessica jones britischen Gewässern blue exorzist einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt als einziges ein deutsches U - Boot.

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Here now some examples regarding submarines at the time between both World Wars. Ich werde das U-Boot um jeden Preis aufhalten. Detail … www. Ich hätte gern gewusst, ob mir Herr Patten erklären kann, wie die Kommission bei der Reparatur eines U-Bootes please click for source willweil das genau die Frage ist, über die wir gerade abgestimmt haben. Auf einem В§3 ist immer Weihnachten. June 22, Später entwickelte er ein Unterseeboot zur Erforschung der Tiefsee. Nomen III. A typical nuclear submarine has a crew of over 80; conventional click here typically have fewer than But a study showed no medical reason to exclude women, though pregnant women frantic still be excluded. Temas Profesionales. With only the front clutch engaged, the https://pageupdata.se/deutsche-filme-online-stream/hugh-bonneville.php engine could drive the electric motor as a generator for charging the batteries without simultaneously forcing the propeller to. With both clutches engaged, the combustion engine could melissa nock the propeller, as was possible when operating on the surface or, at a later stage, when snorkeling. Olender, Piotr more info The first was Nordenfelt Ia tonne, Ballistic missiles can also be fired from a submarine's torpedo tubes, for violetta sachen amazon missiles such as the anti-submarine SUBROC.

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Blue gate crossing. On peut difficilement sauver les autres, les aider, oui, s'ils le veulent. While the snorkel renders a submarine far less detectable, it is thus not perfect.

In clear weather, diesel exhausts can be seen on the surface to a distance of about three miles, [85] while "periscope feather" the wave created by the snorkel or periscope moving through the water is visible from far off in calm sea conditions.

Modern radar is also capable of detecting a snorkel in calm sea conditions. The problem of the diesels causing a vacuum in the submarine when the head valve is submerged still exists in later model diesel submarines but is mitigated by high-vacuum cut-off sensors that shut down the engines when the vacuum in the ship reaches a pre-set point.

Modern snorkel induction masts have a fail-safe design using compressed air , controlled by a simple electrical circuit, to hold the "head valve" open against the pull of a powerful spring.

Seawater washing over the mast shorts out exposed electrodes on top, breaking the control, and shutting the "head valve" while it is submerged.

Initially they were to carry hydrogen peroxide for long-term, fast air-independent propulsion, but were ultimately built with very large batteries instead.

The results were not encouraging. Though the Soviet Union deployed a class of submarines with this engine type codenamed Quebec by NATO , they were considered unsuccessful.

The United States also used hydrogen peroxide in an experimental midget submarine , X X-1 was later converted to use diesel-electric drive.

Today several navies use air-independent propulsion. Notably Sweden uses Stirling technology on the Gotland -class and Södermanland -class submarines.

The Stirling engine is heated by burning diesel fuel with liquid oxygen from cryogenic tanks. Fuel cells are also used in the new Spanish Sclass submarines although with the fuel stored as ethanol and then converted into hydrogen before use.

These batteries have about double the electric storage of traditional batteries, and by changing out the lead-acid batteries in their normal storage areas plus filling up the large hull space normally devoted to AIP engine and fuel tanks with many tons of lithium-ion batteries, modern submarines can actually return to a "pure" diesel-electric configuration yet have the added underwater range and power normally associated with AIP equipped submarines.

Steam power was resurrected in the s with a nuclear-powered steam turbine driving a generator. By eliminating the need for atmospheric oxygen, the time that a submarine could remain submerged was limited only by its food stores, as breathing air was recycled and fresh water distilled from seawater.

More importantly, a nuclear submarine has unlimited range at top speed. This allows it to travel from its operating base to the combat zone in a much shorter time and makes it a far more difficult target for most anti-submarine weapons.

Nuclear power is now used in all large submarines, but due to the high cost and large size of nuclear reactors, smaller submarines still use diesel-electric propulsion.

The ratio of larger to smaller submarines depends on strategic needs. The US Navy, French Navy , and the British Royal Navy operate only nuclear submarines , [90] [91] which is explained by the need for distant operations.

Other major operators rely on a mix of nuclear submarines for strategic purposes and diesel-electric submarines for defense. Most fleets have no nuclear submarines, due to the limited availability of nuclear power and submarine technology.

Diesel-electric submarines have a stealth advantage over their nuclear counterparts. Nuclear submarines generate noise from coolant pumps and turbo-machinery needed to operate the reactor, even at low power levels.

Commercial submarines usually rely only on batteries, since they operate in conjunction with a mother ship. Several serious nuclear and radiation accidents have involved nuclear submarine mishaps.

Oil-fired steam turbines powered the British K-class submarines , built during World War I and later, to give them the surface speed to keep up with the battle fleet.

The K-class subs were not very successful, however. Toward the end of the 20th century, some submarines—such as the British Vanguard class—began to be fitted with pump-jet propulsors instead of propellers.

Though these are heavier, more expensive, and less efficient than a propeller, they are significantly quieter, providing an important tactical advantage.

The success of the submarine is inextricably linked to the development of the torpedo , invented by Robert Whitehead in His invention is essentially the same now as it was years ago.

Only with self-propelled torpedoes could the submarine make the leap from novelty to a weapon of war.

Until the perfection of the guided torpedo , multiple "straight-running" torpedoes were required to attack a target.

With at most 20 to 25 torpedoes stored on board, the number of attacks was limited. To increase combat endurance most World War I submarines functioned as submersible gunboats, using their deck guns against unarmed targets, and diving to escape and engage enemy warships.

The importance of guns encouraged the development of the unsuccessful Submarine Cruiser such as the French Surcouf and the Royal Navy 's X1 and M-class submarines.

With the arrival of Anti-submarine warfare ASW aircraft, guns became more for defense than attack.

A more practical method of increasing combat endurance was the external torpedo tube, loaded only in port.

The ability of submarines to approach enemy harbours covertly led to their use as minelayers. Modern submarine-laid mines , such as the British Mark 5 Stonefish and Mark 6 Sea Urchin, can be deployed from a submarine's torpedo tubes.

Such missiles required the submarine to surface to fire its missiles. They were the forerunners of modern submarine-launched cruise missiles, which can be fired from the torpedo tubes of submerged submarines, for example the US BGM Tomahawk and Russian RPK-2 Viyuga and versions of surface-to-surface anti-ship missiles such as the Exocet and Harpoon , encapsulated for submarine launch.

Ballistic missiles can also be fired from a submarine's torpedo tubes, for example missiles such as the anti-submarine SUBROC.

With internal volume as limited as ever and the desire to carry heavier warloads, the idea of the external launch tube was revived, usually for encapsulated missiles, with such tubes being placed between the internal pressure and outer streamlined hulls.

Germany is working on the torpedo tube-launched short-range IDAS missile , which can be used against ASW helicopters, as well as surface ships and coastal targets.

A submarine can have a variety of sensors, depending on its missions. Modern military submarines rely almost entirely on a suite of passive and active sonars to locate targets.

Active sonar relies on an audible "ping" to generate echoes to reveal objects around the submarine. Active systems are rarely used, as doing so reveals the sub's presence.

Passive sonar is a set of sensitive hydrophones set into the hull or trailed in a towed array, normally trailing several hundred feet behind the sub.

The towed array is the mainstay of NATO submarine detection systems, as it reduces the flow noise heard by operators.

Hull mounted sonar is employed in addition to the towed array, as the towed array can't work in shallow depth and during maneuvering.

In addition, sonar has a blind spot "through" the submarine, so a system on both the front and back works to eliminate that problem.

As the towed array trails behind and below the submarine, it also allows the submarine to have a system both above and below the thermocline at the proper depth; sound passing through the thermocline is distorted resulting in a lower detection range.

Submarines also carry radar equipment to detect surface ships and aircraft. Submarine captains are more likely to use radar detection gear than active radar to detect targets, as radar can be detected far beyond its own return range, revealing the submarine.

Periscopes are rarely used, except for position fixes and to verify a contact's identity. Early submarines had few navigation aids, but modern subs have a variety of navigation systems.

Modern military submarines use an inertial guidance system for navigation while submerged, but drift error unavoidably builds over time.

To counter this, the crew occasionally uses the Global Positioning System to obtain an accurate position. The periscope —a retractable tube with a prism system that provides a view of the surface—is only used occasionally in modern submarines, since the visibility range is short.

The Virginia -class and Astute -class submarines use photonics masts rather than hull-penetrating optical periscopes. These masts must still be deployed above the surface, and use electronic sensors for visible light, infrared, laser range-finding, and electromagnetic surveillance.

One benefit to hoisting the mast above the surface is that while the mast is above the water the entire sub is still below the water and is much harder to detect visually or by radar.

Military submarines use several systems to communicate with distant command centers or other ships. ELF extremely low frequency can reach a submarine at greater depths, but has a very low bandwidth and is generally used to call a submerged sub to a shallower depth where VLF signals can reach.

A submarine also has the option of floating a long, buoyant wire antenna to a shallower depth, allowing VLF transmissions by a deeply submerged boat.

By extending a radio mast, a submarine can also use a " burst transmission " technique. A burst transmission takes only a fraction of a second, minimizing a submarine's risk of detection.

To communicate with other submarines, a system known as Gertrude is used. Gertrude is basically a sonar telephone. Voice communication from one submarine is transmitted by low power speakers into the water, where it is detected by passive sonars on the receiving submarine.

The range of this system is probably very short, and using it radiates sound into the water, which can be heard by the enemy. Civilian submarines can use similar, albeit less powerful systems to communicate with support ships or other submersibles in the area.

With nuclear power or air-independent propulsion , submarines can remain submerged for months at a time. Conventional diesel submarines must periodically resurface or run on snorkel to recharge their batteries.

Most modern military submarines generate breathing oxygen by electrolysis of water using a device called an " Electrolytic Oxygen Generator ".

Atmosphere control equipment includes a CO 2 scrubber, which uses an amine absorbent to remove the gas from air and diffuse it into waste pumped overboard.

A machine that uses a catalyst to convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide removed by the CO 2 scrubber and bonds hydrogen produced from the ship's storage battery with oxygen in the atmosphere to produce water, is also used.

An atmosphere monitoring system samples the air from different areas of the ship for nitrogen , oxygen, hydrogen, R and R refrigerants, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide , and other gases.

Poisonous gases are removed, and oxygen is replenished by use of an oxygen bank located in a main ballast tank.

Some heavier submarines have two oxygen bleed stations forward and aft. The oxygen in the air is sometimes kept a few percent less than atmospheric concentration to reduce fire risk.

Fresh water is produced by either an evaporator or a reverse osmosis unit. The primary use for fresh water is to provide feedwater for the reactor and steam propulsion plants.

It is also available for showers, sinks, cooking and cleaning once propulsion plant needs have been met. Seawater is used to flush toilets, and the resulting " black water " is stored in a sanitary tank until it is blown overboard using pressurized air or pumped overboard by using a special sanitary pump.

The blackwater-discharge system is difficult to operate, and the German Type VIIC boat U was lost with casualties because of human error while using this system.

Trash on modern large submarines is usually disposed of using a tube called a Trash Disposal Unit TDU , where it is compacted into a galvanized steel can.

At the bottom of the TDU is a large ball valve. An ice plug is set on top of the ball valve to protect it, the cans atop the ice plug.

The top breech door is shut, and the TDU is flooded and equalized with sea pressure, the ball valve is opened and the cans fall out assisted by scrap iron weights in the cans.

The TDU is also flushed with seawater to ensure it is completely empty and the ball valve is clear before closing the valve.

A typical nuclear submarine has a crew of over 80; conventional boats typically have fewer than The conditions on a submarine can be difficult because crew members must work in isolation for long periods of time, without family contact.

Submarines normally maintain radio silence to avoid detection. Operating a submarine is dangerous, even in peacetime, and many submarines have been lost in accidents.

Most navies prohibited women from serving on submarines, even after they had been permitted to serve on surface warships.

The Royal Norwegian Navy became the first navy to allow women on its submarine crews in The Royal Danish Navy allowed female submariners in But a study showed no medical reason to exclude women, though pregnant women would still be excluded.

Today, pregnant women are still not allowed to serve on submarines in Sweden. However, the policymakers thought that it was discriminatory with a general ban and demanded that women should be tried on their individual merits and have their suitability evaluated and compared to other candidates.

Further, they noted that a woman complying with such high demands is unlikely to become pregnant. Women have served on US Navy surface ships since , and as of — [update] , began serving on submarines for the first time.

Until presently, the Navy allowed only three exceptions to women being on board military submarines: female civilian technicians for a few days at most, women midshipmen on an overnight during summer training for Navy ROTC and Naval Academy , and family members for one-day dependent cruises.

Both the US and British navies operate nuclear-powered submarines that deploy for periods of six months or longer. Other navies that permit women to serve on submarines operate conventionally powered submarines, which deploy for much shorter periods—usually only for a few months.

In an emergency, submarines can transmit a signal to other ships. The crew can use Submarine Escape Immersion Equipment to abandon the submarine.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Submarines in world war 2. This article is about watercraft designed for submerged operation.

For other uses, see Submarine disambiguation. Watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. Main article: History of submarines.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main articles: Attack submarine , Ballistic missile submarine , Cruise missile submarine , and Nuclear submarine.

See also: Timeline of underwater technology. Main article: Submarine hull. Further information: Marine propulsion , Air-independent propulsion , Nuclear marine propulsion , and Nuclear submarine.

Further information: Diesel-electric transmission. Main article: Submarine snorkel. Main article: Air-independent propulsion.

Main articles: Nuclear submarine and Nuclear marine propulsion. Main article: Sonar. Main article: Submarine navigation.

Main article: Communication with submarines. Autonomous underwater vehicle Coastal submarine Depth charge Fictional submarines Flying submarine List of ships sunk by submarines by death toll List of submarine actions List of submarine classes List of submarine museums List of submarines of the Second World War List of specifications of submarines of World War II List of sunken nuclear submarines Merchant submarine Nuclear navy Ohio Replacement Submarine Semi-submersible naval vessel Submarine films Submarine power cable Submarine simulator , a computer game genre Supercavitation.

United States Navy. Archived from the original on January 14, Retrieved English Russia. Retrieved 21 May University Press of Kentucky.

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Naval Institute Press. Royal Navy. Available from: Bavarian State Library From p. From p. Imperatore, cum decem propemodum millibus hominum experientia vidi.

March 7, Archived from the original on July 21, Retrieved 16 April Navy Department Library. Archived from the original on 17 September Delgado International Journal of Nautical Archaeology Journal.

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Retrieved 24 February Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. Silent Victory , pp. The others were lost to accidents or, in the case of Seawolf , friendly fire.

Cox, "Onderzeeboot-bestrijding" in: Militaire Spectator - Wetenschappelijke jaarberichten pp. Gerretse and J. Wijn, pp.

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Dutch naval ship classes post Rotterdam S Johan de Witt S. Karel Doorman S.

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